The aperture is calculated by referring to the aperture F-number and
f-stop. F-number goes by,
Each stage is considered a stop. Hence f/2 is a stop lower than f/1.4,
f/5.6 is two stop lower than f/2.8 and so on. The aperture f-number
basically means the size of the opening with f/1 having the biggest
aperture and the most amount of light going into the sensor. The lower
the f-number means the smaller aperture size and fewer amount of light
going into the sensor.
For every stop of the aperture, the amount of light going into the sensor dropped by half. For example, the amount of light going in with f/5.6 is half of the amount light going in with f/4.
The aperture size of the lens is printed on the lens barrel, for example
aperture size of f/1.4 is written as f/1.4 or F4 or 1:4. The larger the
aperture size of the lens means the bigger the opening of the lens, and
subsequently this also means that the bigger the size of the lens and
the higher the cost.
Lens with large aperture proves to be a very good tool especially in low
light situation and capturing fast moving objects. Due to the large
opening of the lens, even in low light environment, larger amount of
light goes into the lens to achieve sufficient exposure compare to
smaller aperture lens. Lens with large exposure is also consider as a
fast lens, with the large opening, it can achieve sufficient exposure
with faster shutter speed compare to smaller aperture lens. With so much
usefulness, large aperture lens comes in a big size and huge price.
Other than affecting the exposure, the size of the aperture also affects
the depth of field. Large aperture will provides shallow depth of field
and small aperture will provides larger depth of field. It simply means
with large aperture setting, the distance whereby the object looks clear
and sharp is short whereas with small aperture, most of the object in
the photos will be clear.
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